۳. Nouns and Noun Phrases

Contents

a. Nouns

Nouns (category symbol: N) are lexical morphemes or affixal formations that refer to whole (real or fictitious) entities, for example:

noun_EN

According to this definition, nouns can be divided as follows:

  • free lexical morphemes: /sæng/ سنگ, /gorg/ گرگ, /ʒɒpon/ ژاپن
  • bound lexical morphemes, like the possessive pronoun /-t/ in the following example:

    اگر تا شهر به همان حـال می‌آوردندت /mi-ɒværdænd-æt/، چه می‌کردی؟!

    Jalal Al-e Ahmad (20th Century AD)

  • Simple affixal formations: /xorɒk/ خوراک, /dɒneʃ/ دانش, /nɒpedæri/ ناپدری
  • Affixal formations whose stems are also affixal formations: /soxænværɒn/ سخنوران, /ʃirini/ شیرینی
  • Affixal formations which phrases serve as stems: /bær-ɒmædægi/ برآمدگی, /sær-gæʃtægɒn/ سرگشتگان

b. Noun Phrases

Noun phrase (category symbol: NP) is the category of language elements which refer to (real or fictitious) entities. Noun phrases can have the following syntaxes in Persian:

  • Simple nouns: /bærɒdær/ برادر, /sɒxtmɒn/ ساختمان, /rɒnændægi/ رانندگی, /dɒstɒn/ داستان
  • Nominalized adjectival phrases: /kɒrmænd/ کارمند, /xæbær-negɒr/ خبرنگار, /do-ʧærxæ/ دوچرخه
  • Nominalized determinative phrases: /in/ این, /hæm-ɒn/ همان
  • Nominalized non-finite verb forms: /pærdɒxt/ پرداخـت, /sorud/ سرود, /ɒʃub/ آشوب
  • Compounds:
    • With the pattern [NP[NPnoun phrase] [NPnoun phrase]] and [NP[NPnoun phrase] [NPnoun phrase] [NPnoun phrase]]: /ɒb-guʃt/ آب‌گوشت, /sær-zæmin/ سرزمین, /ʃotor-gɒv-pælæng/ شترگاوپلنگ
    • With the pattern [NP[APadjectival phrase] [NPnoun phrase]]: /bozorg-mærd/ بزرگ‌مرد, /zɒjændæ-rud/ زاینده‌رود
    • With the pattern [NP[NPnoun phrase] [APadjectival phrase]]: /tɒɣʧæ-bɒlɒ/ تاقچه‌بالا, /hæjɒt-xælvæt/ حیات‌خلوت
    • With the pattern [NP[VPverb phrase] [VPverb phrase]]: /bezæn-bezæn/ بزن‌بزن, /begu-mægu/ بگومگو
  • Nominal Determiner phrases:
    • With the pattern [NP[NPnoun phrase] [DetPdeterminative phrase]]: /pesærɒn-i/ پسرانی, /jɒr-u/ یارو
    • With the pattern [NP[DetPdeterminative phrase] [NPnoun phrase]]: /in ʤævɒn/ این جوان, /hæm-ɒn ruz/ همان روز
  • Phrases with conjunctions as constituents:
    • With the pattern [NP[NPnoun phrase] [Conconjunction] [NPnoun phrase]] (with one or more sequences of [Conconjunction] [NPnoun phrase]): /dæst-e mæn/ دستِ من, /zolf o rox o xɒl o xæt o ɒrez o ɣɒmæt/ زلف و رخ و خال و خط و عارض و قامت
    • With the pattern [NP[NPnoun phrase] [Conconjunction] [APadjectival phrase]]: /keʃvær-e bɒstɒni/ کشورِ باستانی, /zæmɒn-e derɒz/ زمانِ دراز
  • Phrases with the pattern [NP[NPnoun phrase] [PPadpositional phrase]: /mærd-i æz tæbriz/ مردی از تبریز, /didær bɒ bæstegɒn/ دیدار با بستگان
  • Phrases with the pattern [NP[PPadpositional phrase] [NPnoun phrase]]: /æz ʃomɒ jek kodɒm/ از شما یک کدام

In addition, there are some patterns that are only used for the derivation of nomina actionis ↓, attribution of nomina actionis ↓ or for deriving nomina loci ↓.

c. Grammatical Categories of Noun Phrases

Noun phrases (and therefore also simple nouns) have the following grammatical categories:

d. Special Forms of Noun Phrases

(See also 3•۱•d. Collective Noun and 3•۲•c. Proper Noun.)

d•a. Nomen Actionis

Nomina actionis are noun phrases representing entities which identify a process or a certain state (= nomen qualitatis). They are also the static form of the verbs: /mærg/ مرگ, /bærɒbæri/ برابری, /ræftæn/ رفتن

In Persian (as with other languages), nomina actionis are also expanded to acquire the following meanings:

  • The result of the process (= nomen acti): /goftɒr/ گفتار, /piruzi/ پیروزی
  • A Ceremonial: /didæni/ دیدنی, /ærusi/ عروسی, /tævællod/ تولّد
  • Something that is suited to the process: /xoreʃ/ خورش
  • The size of the state: /rævʃænɒi/ روشنایی, /derɒzɒ/ درازا
  • The location of executing (= nomen loci ↓): /tævlidi/ تولیدی, /duzændægi/ دوزندگی, /nɒnvɒi/ نانوایی

d•a•a. Derivation of Nomina Actionis

Nomina actionis can have (besides the simple form) following syntaxes:

  • From other noun phrases:
    • With the suffix /-æk/: /ʧeʃmæk/ چشمک, /nɒxonæk/ ناخنک
    • With the suffix /-i/:

      بیا ساقی آن می که شاهی /ʃɒhi/ دهد

      به پاکیِّ او دل گواهی /gævɒhi/ دهد

      Hafez (14th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-ijjæt/:

      گفتم: «زِ وادیِ بشریّت /bæʃærijjæt/ توان گذشت؟»

      گفتا: «توان، اگر نبُود مَرکب‌ت جَمام»

      Khaqani (12th Century AD)

    • In archaic idioms, with the suffixes /-ɒðægi/ and /-ɒjægi/:

      وصفِ دوستی و دشمناذگی /doʃmænɒðægi/ و بیگانگی و آشناییِ خلقان

      Baha’uddin Walad (12th and 13th Century AD)

  • From adjectival phrases:
    • With the suffix /-ɒ/:

      چون خطّ درازست بی فراخا /færɒxɒ/

      خطّی که درازاش /derɒzɒ/ بی‌کران‌ست

      Nasir Khusraw (11th Century AD)

    • With the suffixes /-ɒi/ and /-ɒjɒ/:

      تو از تیرگی روشنایی /rævʃænɒi/ مجوی!

      که با آتش آب اندر آید به جوی

      Ferdowsi (10th and 11th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-æ/: /tizæ/ تیزه
    • With the suffixes /-eʃ/, /-iʃ/, /-eʃt/ and /-eʃn/: /nærmeʃ/ نرمش

      چربش /ʧærbeʃ/ آن جا دان که جان فربه شود

      کارِ ناامّید آن جا به شود

      Rumi (13th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-i/:

      بگذر از این پی که جهان‌گیری /ʤæhɒn-giri/ است

      حکمِ جوانی /ʤævɒni/ مکن! این پیری /piri/ است

      Nezami Gandjavi (12th and 13th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-ijjæt/: /zeddijjæt/ ضدیّت
    • With the suffix /-nɒ/:

      سودی نکند فراخنایِ /færæxnɒ/ بر و دوش

      گر آدمی‌ای عقل و هنر پرور و هوش!

      Saadi (12th and 13th Century AD)

    • The suffix /-ɒn/ generates nomina actionis from attributed simple nomina agentis (= endocentric determinative compositions with a present participle as nucleus, see 10•c•a.). Such nomina actionis refer to ceremonials: /hænɒ-bændɒn/ حنابندان, /xætnæ-konɒn/ ختنه‌کنان, /ɣɒli-ʃujɒn/ قالی‌شویان
  • From verbal roots with the suffix /-tɒr/:

    حوری به سپاه اندر و ماه‌ی به صف اندر

    سروی گَهِ آسایش و کبک‌ی گَهِ رفتار /ræftɒr/

    Rudaki (9th and 10th Century AD)

  • From infinitives:
    • By nominalization:

      دانی که چی‌ست دولت؟ دیدارِ یار دیدن /didæn/

      در کویِ او گدایی بر خسروی گزیدن /gozidæn/

      Hafez (14th Century AD)

      This is the case in archaic idioms, also for affirmative infinitives with the prefix /be-/:

      جز که نباشد حلال دور بکردن /bekærdæn/

      بچّه‌یِ کوچک زِ شیرِ مادر و پستان

      Rudaki (9th and 10th Century AD)

      Furthermore negative infinitives (by means of prefixes /nɒ-/ and /næ-/) can become nominalized:

      آسود زمانی از دویدن

      وز گفتن و هیچ ناشنیدن /nɒʃenidæn/

      Nezami Gandjavi (12th and 13th Century AD)

      Please note that such nomina actionis count still among affirmative noun phrases, despite their negative meaning.

    • In archaic idioms, also with the proclitical adverb /mi-/ می:

      و به انـدازه‌یِ غلاّت داروها را ضعیف‌تر و قوی‌تر می‌کردن /mi-kærdæn/.

      Esmail Gorgani (11th and 12th Century AD)

  • From past participles:
    • By nominalization:

      ساقیا! خیز و جام در ده زود!

      که نه بهرِ نشست /neʃæst/ آمده‌ایم

      Attar Nishapuri (12th and 13th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-mɒn/: /sɒxtmɒn/ ساختمان, /duxtmɒn/ دوختمان
    • In archaic idioms, with the suffixes /-eʃ/, /-iʃ/, /-eʃt/ and /-eʃn/:

      بیرون‌ت کنند از درِ مرگ

      چون از درِ بودش /budeʃ/ اندر آیی

      Nasir Khusraw (11th Century AD)

  • From present participles:
    • By nominalization:

      با دل‌آرامی مرا خاطر خوش‌ست

      که‌از دل‌م یک‌باره برد آرام /ɒrɒm/ را

      Hafez (14th Century AD)

    • With the suffixes /-ɒ/ and /-ɒk/: /xorɒk/ خوراک, /puʃɒk/ پوشاک

      چرا ناید آهویِ سیمینِ من

      که بر چشم کردم‌ش جایِ چرا /ʧærɒ/؟

      Ghazaeri Razi (10th and 11th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-ɒl/: /rævɒl/ روال
    • With the suffix /-æ/:

      ذوقِ خنده /xændæ/ دیده‌ای ای خیره چند

      ذوقِ گریه /gerjæ/ بین! که هست آن کانِ قند

      Rumi (13th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-ænd/: /rævænd/ روند
    • With the suffixes /-eʃ/, /-iʃ/, /-eʃt/ and /-eʃn/:

      خورش /xoreʃ/ را گوارش /govɒreʃ/ مِی افزون کند

      زِ تن ماندگی‌ها به بیرون کند

      Ferdowsi (10th and 11th Century AD)

    • With the suffix /-mɒn/: /zɒjmɒn/ زایمان, /sɒzmɒn/ سازمان
    • In archaic idioms, with the suffix /-i/:

      گر نباشد جاهِ فرعون و سری

      از کجا یابد جهنّم پروری /pærværi/؟!

      Rumi (13th Century AD)

      نشـانِ آمرزی‌اش /ɒmorzi/ آن‌ست که دلِ تو رقّتی یابد.

      Baha’uddin Walad (12th and 13th Century AD)

  • From nominal participles:
    • By nominalization:

      اگر آزمون /ɒzmun/ را یکی خورد زهر

      از آن خوردن‌ش درد و مرگ /mærg/ است بهر

      Ferdowsi (10th and 11th Century AD)

    • With the suffixes /-eʃ/, /-iʃ/, /-eʃt/ and /-eʃn/:

      مردِ سرهنگ از آن نمونشِ /nemuneʃ/ راست

      از سرِ خونِ آن صنم بر خاست

      Nezami Gandjavi (12th and 13th Century AD)

      دلی باید اندیشه را تیز و تند

      برینش /borineʃ/ نیاید زِ شمشیرِ کند

      Nezami Gandjavi (12th and 13th Century AD)

  • From two nominalized non-finite verb forms:
    • Copulative composition of an affirmative past participle with its negative form: /ɒmæd-næjɒmæd/ آمدنیامد, /ʃɒjest-næʃɒjest/ شایست‌نشایست
    • Copulative coordination of two past participles using the conjunction /o/:

      سلاح از تن و خوی زِ رخ ریختند

      به داد و ستد /dɒd o setæd/ در هم آمیختند

      Nezami Gandjavi (12th and 13th Century AD)

    • Copulative composition of an affirmative present participle (normally emphasized with the prefix /be-/) with itself: /bezæn-bezæn/ بزن‌بزن, /boxor-boxor/ بخوربخور, /bokoʃ-bokoʃ/ بکش‌بکش
    • Copulative composition of an affirmative present participle (normally emphasized with the prefix /be-/) with its negative form: /keʃ-mækeʃ/ کش‌مکش, /begu-mægu/ بگومگو
    • Copulative composition of an affirmative present participle (normally emphasized with the prefix /be-/) with another one: /beriz-bepɒʃ/ بریزبپاش, /begir-bebænd/ بگیرببند
    • Copulative composition of an affirmative present participle with another one by means of the interfix /-ɒ-/:

      تا روز به شادی بگذاریم! که فردا

      وقتِ رهِ غزو آید و هنگامِ تکاپوی /tæk-ɒ-puj/

      Farrukhi Sistani (10th and 11th Century AD)

    • Copulative coordination of two affirmative present participles (normally emphasized with the prefix /be-/) using the conjunction /o/: /beriz o bepɒʃ/ بریز و بپاش, /bebær o biɒr/ ببر و بیار
    • Copulative composition of an affirmative past participle with its affirmative present participle:

      به نازی روم را در جست‌جوی‌م /ʤost-ʤuj/

      به بویی با ختن در گفت‌گوی‌م /goft-guj/

      Nezami Gandjavi (12th and 13th Century AD)

d•a•b. Attribution of Nomina Actionis

(See 4•۱•b. Attribution of Nomina Patientis and 4•۲•b. Attribution of Nomina Agentis.)

Nomina actionis can also be attributed by one or more sentence constituents. This process is subject of the following rules (in the following order). Please note that a new nomen actionis is formed at every step before being attributed by the next step:

  1. Determinative composition of verb particles with nomina actionis, which are derived from non-finite verb forms:

    پیش‌برد /piʃ-bord/، وررفتن /vær-ræftan/

  2. Determinative composition of predicative complements with nomina actionis, which are derived from non-finite verb forms:

    گرامی‌داشت /gerɒmi-dɒʃt/، بزرگ‌کردن /bozorg-kærdæn/، عقب‌نگه‌داشتن [NP[AP/æɣæb/] [NP/negæh-dɒʃtæn/]]

  3. Determinative composition of direct objects which are appellative-indefinite noun phrases (= no adpositional phrases with the postposition /rɒ/), with nomina actionis which are derived from infinitives:

    استفاده‌کردن /estefɒde-kærdæn/، چشم‌فروبستن [NP[NP/ʧæʃm/] [NP/foru-bæstæn/]]

  4. Modal adverbials (as adjectival phrases) are attached to nomina actionis with a qualitative genitive (with the pattern [NP[NPnomen actionis] [Conenclitical conjunction /-e/] [APmodal adverbial]]):

    سفرِ دراز /sæfær-e derɒz/، گفتارِ نیک /goftɒr-e nik/

  5. Adverbials which are noun phrases (= no adpositional phrases) are attached to nomina actionis, with a possessive genitive (with the pattern [NP[NPnomen actionis] [Conenclitical conjunction /-e/] [NPadverbial]]):

    سخن‌رانیِ خوبِ دیروز [NP[NP/soxæn-ræni-e xub/] [Con/-e/] [NP/di-ruz/]]

    راه‌بندانِ پس از کرج [NP[NP/rɒh-bændɒn/] [Con/-e/] [NP/pæs æz kæræʤ/]]

  6. One (only one) of the following sentence constituents can generate a genitive phrase with the nomen actionis:
    • The subject with possessive genitive (with the pattern [NP[NPnomen actionis] [Conenclitical conjunction /-e/] [NPsubject]]):

      رشدِ کودکان /roʃd-e kudækɒn/

      مستقل‌شدنِ هند [NP[NP/mostæɣel-ʃodæn/] [Con/-e/] [NP/hend/]]

      رفتارِ دیشبِ تو [NP[NP/ræftɒr-e di-ʃæb/] [Con/-e/] [NP/to/]]

    • The direct object as adpositional phrase (with the postposition /rɒ/) also with possessive genitive (with the pattern [NP[NPnomen actionis] [Conenclitical conjunction /-e/] [NPdirect object]]). In this case, the postposition /rɒ/ must be deleted, and consequently only a noun phrase is reminded from the direct object:

      خریدِ یک کتاب [NP[NP/xærid/] [Con/-e/] [NP/jek ketɒb/]]

      کشتنِ مرغِ مقلّد [NP[NP/koʃtæn/] [Con/-e/] [NP/morɣ-e moɣælled/]]

      This rule is also valid for benefactive objects which are used with the postposition /rɒ/:

      تغییرِ برنامه /tæɣjir-e bær-nɒme/

    • A maximum of one prepositional phrase with qualitative genitive (with the pattern [NP[NPnomen actionis] [Conenclitical conjunction /-e/] [PPadpositional phrase]]), provided that the nomen actionis is not already a genitive phrase:

      عشقِ به میهن [NP[NP/eʃɣ/] [Con/-e/] [PP/be mihæn/]]

      رفتنِ از تهران [NP[NP/ræftæn/] [Con/-e/] [PP/æz tehræn/]]

      This rule is optional, and the prepositional phrases can attribute the nomen actionis also according to the next rule (without qualitative genitive):

      عشق به میهن [NP[NP/eʃɣ/] [PP/be mihæn/]]

      رفتن از تهران [NP[NP/ræftæn/] [PP/æz tehræn/]]

  7. All objects (except the direct object) and all adverbials (except the modal adverbial) can be positioned as attributes behind the nomen actionis. The nomen actionis can have several such attributes:

    سفرِ از شیراز به اهواز [NP[NP/sæfær-e æz ʃirɒz/] [PP/be æhvɒz/]]

    سفر از شیراز به اهواز [NP[NP/sæfær/] [PP/æz ʃirɒz/] [PP/be æhvɒz/]]

    موافقتِ گسترده‌یِ سازمان با پیش‌نهـادِ من پس از پخشِ فیلم [NP[NP/movɒfeɣæt-e gostærdæ-je sɒzmɒn/] [PP/bɒ piʃ-næhɒd-e mæn/] [NP/pæs æz pæxʃ-e film/]]

    قتلِ این خسته به شمشیرِ تو تقدیر نبود

    ور نه هیچ از دلِ بی‌رحمِ تو تقصیر نبود

    Hafez (14th Century AD)

  8. The attribution of nomina actionis which are derived from infinitives is less restrictive. It offers the following possibilities:
    • Objects and adverbials can be set not only behind the nomen actionis, but also in front of it:

      از دبستان به دبیرستان راه‌یافتنِ دانش‌آموزان در شهرِ ملایر پس از آزمونِ نهایی [NP[PP/æz dæbestɒn/] [PP/be dæbirestɒn/] [NP/rɒh-jɒftan-e dɒneʃ-ɒmuzɒn/] [PP/dær ʃæhr-e mælɒjer/] [NP/pæs æz ɒzmun-e næhɒi/]]

    • The direct object as adpositional phrase (with the postposition /rɒ/) can (like other objects) also be set as an attribute behind or in front of the nomen actionis:

      خود را از ترس پنهان‌کردن [NP[PP/xod/] [PP/æz tærs/] [NP/penhɒn-kærdæn/]]

      چرب‌کردنِ مردِ لافی لب و سبلتِ خود را [NP[NP/ʧærb-kærdæn-e mærd-e lɒfi/] [PP/læb o seblæt-e xod/]]

      Rumi (13th Century AD)

      کشتنِ اسفندیار ارجاسپ را [NP[NP/koʃtæn-e esfændjɒr/] [PP/ærʤɒsp rɒ/]]

      Ferdowsi (10th and 11th Century AD)

      بازفرستادنِ رستم بهمن را [NP[NP/bɒz-ferestɒdæn-e rostæm/] [PP/bæhmæn rɒ/]]

      Ferdowsi (10th and 11th Century AD)

    • The modal adverbial (as adjectival phrase) can also be set as attribute behind or in front of the nomen actionis:

      تنها به قاضی رفتن [NP[AP/tænhɒ/] [PP/be ɣɒzi/] [NP/ræftæn/]]

      او را خوب به یاد داشتن [NP[PP/u rɒ/] [AP/xub/] [PP/be yɒd/] [NP/dɒʃtæn/]]

d•a•c. Onomatopoetic

Onomatopoetics are handled in Persian linguistics as nomina actionis. They represent the imitation of sounds from the environment or, in other words, their conversion to a phoneme string that can be pronounced in speech.

Onomatopoetics have the following syntaxes:

  • Simple: /ʃejhe/ شیهه
  • By copulative composition: /ʤering-ʤering/ جرینگ‌جرینگ, /xeʃ-xeʃ/ خش‌خش, /bæʔ-bæʔ/ بع‌بع
  • In the Tajik idiom with the suffix /-ɒs/ (see the article of Firuza Amanova in مجلهء زبانشناسی, ۱۵th and 16th issue, page 2): /ækkɒs/ اکّاس, /peʧerrɒs/ پچرّاس

    از دور صدایِ اکّاسِ /ækkɒs/ (= عوعو) سگان شنیده می‌شد.

d•b. Nomen Instrumenti

Nomina instrumenti are noun phrases which represent instruments to execute the process of nomina actionis.

In Persian, nominalized simple nomina agentis are often used as nomina instrumenti: /dær-bɒz-kon/ دربازکن, /ɒhæn-bor/ آهن‌بر

However, nomina instrumenti can also generated from present participles:

Also the nominalized perfect participle /didæ/ دیده (= “eye”) is among nomina instrumenti:

سد ره‌ت «لن ترانی» ار گویند

باز می‌دار دیده بر دیدار!

Hatef Esfahani (17th and 18th Century AD)

In Persian, foreign-language nomina instrumenti also belong to this group: /mesvɒk/ مسواک, /kɒmpijuter/ کامپیوتر

d•c. Nomen Loci

A nomen loci is a noun phrase referring to the place or the container in which an entity is (or happens):

Nomina loci are generated in Persian as follows:

  • From other noun phrases (also nominalized adjectival phrases):
  • From adjectival phrase:
  • From nominal participles, by nominalization: /neʃimæn/ نشیمن
  • By Determinative composition of the following sentence constituents with present participles:
    • The subject: /ɒb-ræv/ آب‌رو, /dæst-ræs/ دست‌رس
    • The appellative-indefinite direct object: /rɒh-ræv/ راه‌رو, /xɒk-riz/ خاک‌ریز
    • The verb particle: /dær-ræv/ دررو
  • By possessive genitive or composition with noun phrases which mean in this language a lot to “place”: /xɒnæ-je honɒr/ خانه‌یِ هنر, /dɒneʃ-kædæ/ دانش‌کده, /ræzm-gɒh/ رزم‌گاه, /dɒru-xɒnæ/ داروخانه

Nomina loci from foreign language also belong to this group in Persian: /mætæbb/ مطبّ, /mæsʤed/ مسجد

d•d. Diminutive

Diminutives are in Persian suffixal formations which represent the diminishment or belittlement of their stems. Both diminutives and their stems are nouns.

The following suffixes are used to generate diminutives:

پاسخ دهید