۷•۱۷. Multiplicative Pronouns

Multiplicative pronouns are nominal pronouns which are used (as determinative focuses) within the syntax of multiplicative numerals (see 6•۳•a.).

The following noun phrases are applied as multiplicative pronouns in Persian:

  • The copulative composition /bær-ɒ-bær/ برابر (from the noun /bær/ بر with the meaning “height” and the interfix /-ɒ-/):

    نعمتِ ما به چشمِ هم‌سایه

    سد برابر /sæd bær-ɒ-bær/ فزون کند پایه

    Rashid Yasemi (19th and 20th Century AD)

  • The determiner phrase /ʧænd-ɒn/ چندان (= [NP[NP/ʧænd/ چند] [DetPenclitical demonstrative pronoun /-ɒn/ آن]]) with the meaning “that amount”.

    دو چندان /do ʧænd-ɒn/ که رشتی به روزی برشت

    شمارَش همی بر زمین بر نوشت

    Ferdowsi (10th and 11th Century AD)

    گر هزارم جفا و جور کنی

    دوست دارم هزار چندان‌ت /hezɒr ʧænd-ɒn/

    Saadi (12th and 13th Century AD)

  • In archaic idioms, also the personal pronoun /væj/ وی with the meaning “it”:

    گر صالح و گر فاسق، بر فطرتِ خویش‌م من

    گو: «تخمِ نکو بفشان، از ما بستان ده وی /dæh væj/»

    Nazari Ghohestani (13th and 14th Century AD)

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