۱۰•۲. Substantial Genitive

In the substantial genitive, the modifier identifies the material of which the nucleus is made up (cf. substantial composition).

In Persian, the substantial genitive is always endocentric. A substantial genitive phrase (like its nucleus and modifier) is a noun phrases:

substantial_EN

کسرا و ترنجِ زر، پرویز و بهِ زرّین

بر باد شده یک‌سر، با خاک شده یک‌سان

Khaqani (12th Century AD)

راستی خاتمِ فیروزه‌یِ بواسحاقی

خوش درخشید، ولی دولتِ مستعجل بود

Hafez (14th Century AD)

Substantial genitive phrases can also have a metaphorical meaning:

شادیِ یارِ پری‌چهره بده باده‌یِ ناب!

که میِ لعل دوایِ دلِ غمگین آمد

Hafez (14th Century AD)

Contents

a. Pluralization of Substantial Genitive Phrases

There are two methods for the pluralization of substantial genitive phrases:

  1. By pluralizing the nucleus (see 10•۱•a., 10•۳. and 10•۴•a.):
    Singular Plural
    /ʤɒm-e bolur/ جامِ بلور /ʤɒmhɒ-je bolur/ جام‌هایِ بلور
    /sekkæ-je tælɒ/ سکّه‌یِ طلا /sekkæhɒ-je tælɒ/ سکّه‌هایِ طلا
  2. By using the genitive asyndetically (= without the enclitical conjunction /-e/), and attaching the suffix /-hɒ/ to the genitive phrase (see 10•۱•a.):
    Singular Plural
    /ʤɒm-e bolur/ جامِ بلور /ʤɒm bolurhɒ/ جام بلورها
    /sekkæ-je tælɒ/ سکّه‌یِ طلا /sekkæ tælɒhɒ/ سکّه طلاها

b. Definiteness of Substantial Genitive Phrases

The modifier of the substantial genitive is always appellative-indefinite, and the definiteness of the substantial genitive phrase corresponds with the definiteness of the nucleus (see 10•۱•b.).

There are two ways to attach the enclitical article /-i/ to substantial genitive phrases:

  1. By attaching the enclitical article /-i/ to the genitive phrase (see 10•۱•b. and 10•۴•b.):
    without the enclitical article /-i/ with the enclitical article /-i/
    /ʤɒm-e bolur/ جامِ بلور /ʤɒm-e bolur-i/ جامِ بلوری
    /sekkæ-je tælɒ/ سکّه‌یِ طلا /sekkæ-je tælɒ-i/ سکّه‌یِ طلایی
  2. By dissolving the genitive. In this case, the original modifier appears as an origative adverbial and attributes the original nucleus:
    without the enclitical article /-i/ with the enclitical article /-i/
    /ʤɒm-e bolur/ جامِ بلور /ʤɒm-i æz bolur/ جامی از بلور
    /sekkæ-je tælɒ/ سکّه‌یِ طلا /sekkæ-i æz tælɒ/ سکّه‌ای از طلا

The enclitical article /-e/ has to be attached at the end of the substantial genitive phrase. In this case, the genitive phrase must be applied asyndetically (= without the enclitical conjunction /-e/, see 10•۱•b.):

without the enclitical article /-e/ with the enclitical article /-e/
/ʤɒm-e bolur/ جامِ بلور /ʤɒm bolur-e/ جام بلوره
/sekkæ-je tælɒ/ سکّه‌یِ طلا /sekkæ tælɒ-he/ سکّه طلاهه

پاسخ دهید