۱۳•۲. Transitivity of Verb Phrases

The grammatical category transitivity is not limited to verb phrases; it is also valid for verbal roots too. It describes whether a verb phrase is accompanied by a direct object (= transitive verb phrase) or not (= intransitive verb phrase), when it is used as a predicate of a sentence:

نامه‌یِ تو سرانجام دیروز رسید. (intransitive)

سرش را (direct object) رویِ زانویِ من گذاشت. (transitive)

Special forms of transitive verb phrases are causative verb phrases. When such a verb phrase is used as a predicate in the sentence, an agent (= subject) causes/forces another agent (= benefactive object) to perform the action with a direct object:

سوسن (subject) به زور دارو را (direct object) به پدرش (benefactive object) خورانید. (causative)


In Persian, it is common to generate present participles with a new transitivity using suffixes (see 12•۲•a•b.. Naturally, other verb phrases can be derived from these present participles:

  1. Intransitive present participles (occasionally also past participles) can generate new transitive present participles by means of the suffix /-ɒn/:

    گنجشک از شاخه پرید. بچه‌ها گنجشک را از شاخه پراندند.

    غنچه‌ها شکفت. بهار غنچه‌ها را شکفتانید.

  2. The suffix /-ɒn/ can generate new causative present participles from transitive present participles:

    کفش‌ش را می‌پوشد. پدرش کفش‌ش را به او می‌پوشاند.

  3. The suffix /-æn/ can be used for the derivation of new intransitive present participles from transitive present participles:

    روزگار اندوه‌م را افزود. اندوه‌م افزایند.

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