In Persian, non-finite verb forms are derivates of verbal roots, and imply processes or certain states as constituents of (amongst others) verb phrases. They are free morphemes or affixal formations, and their derivation can be visualized in the following graph:
Persian non-finite verb forms appear in the following subclasses:
- ۱۲•۱. Infinitives and Past Participles
- ۱۲•۲. Present Participles
- ۱۲•۳. Nominal Participles
- ۱۲•۴. Perfect Participles
- ۱۲•۵. Presumptive Participles
In their own role, non-finite verb forms can appear in free (not bound) forms only in the following cases:
- Nominalized, namely as nomina actionis (see 3•d•a•a.): /xærid/ خرید, /foruʃ/ فروش, /ɒzmun/ آزمون
- Adjectivized, as nomina patientis (see 4•۱.) or perfect nomina agentis (see 4•۲•a•b.): /pæsænd/ پسند, /pæjvæst/ پیوست, /boridæ/ بریده
- As verb phrases without inflectional affixes: /u ræft/ او رفت., /xoʃ bɒʃ/ خوش باش!
The grammatical categories of non-finite verb forms are discussed in Chapter 13•c..